|ON THE WAY TO: FROM/TO EUROPE [#1] [#2] [#3] [symposium] [photo documentation]
Jochen Becker for metroZones
Exposé on a project in progress about Europe’s colonial fundaments, tri-continental positions and contemporary post-colonial conditions in the cities of the world
on the way to: From/To Europe, a research and exhibition project in progress, maintains that its two central fields of examination - the reciprocal relationship between Europe and its colonies since 1884, and the contemporary situation of "cities of the world", which are effectively determined by migration - are interlinked. Until now, colonial history and migration politics have been discussed separately. The Berlin "Congo Conference" in 1884/85 was not only responsible for the final colonial division of the African continent, but also - with the exclusion of the subject nations and with Africa paying the costs - consolidated the union and development of Europe. on the way to: From/To Europe responds to political conferences, culture festivals, exhibitions and sport events that formulate a pan-African, tri-continental or blockfree position. However, the "colonial project" was not without opposition in the north, and numerous solidarity projects, anti-imperialistic and internationalist movements have to be mentioned here.
The reciprocal, yet unequal relationship between the north and its colonies was further consolidated during World War II when the Third World served as a battlefield as well as an important source for material and humans. The colonial theorist Frantz Fanon (Martinique/Algeria) as well as most of the heads of states of the later decolonized nations, served in the French army under General Charles de Gaulle, and were directly involved in Europe’s liberation from the Nazis. The 8th of May 1945 not only marks the end of the World War II but also the temporary suppression of the national liberalization movement in occupied Algeria, which became the cradle of the anti-colonial war against France some ten years later.
The research photographs 1960 taken by the sociologist and ethnologist Pierre Bourdieu in occupied Algeria - which are meanwhile considered in art context - show farmers condemned to casual labour after having been forced into the city. Their "change of clothing", their wearing suit jackets and trousers, characterizes the initiation of the transition process that eventually led them from the fields of Algeria to the cities of Europe: as immigrant workers. This development heralds the start of the
Photo: Pierre Bourdieu,
Algerien, © Camera Austria
How does Europe constitute itself through colonialism and migration? How have the contours of development and reciprocal relationships been defined up until the present day? And how will a future Europe emerge from the "cities of the world"? These are the points of reference from which the project’s research emanates. The Shedhalle Zurich has agreed to host and accompany the project on the way to: From/To Europe as an umbrella organisation. Jochen Becker, Manuela Bojadzijev, Julien Enoka-Ayemba and Stephan Lanz are responsible for the supervision of the project.
The preparation for the project is expected to last three years, and, at the moment, provides for an exhibition of Pierre Bourdieu’s "Algerian" photographs at the Shedhalle Zurich as well as a research station at the Kunstraum of the University of Luneburg developed by Dierk Schmidt. Several workshops, congresses and film programmes as well as a concluding publication in English language are planned to support the project. Several other exhibitions are scheduled and will be discussed during the course of research in European and African countries. In these cases, national positions are going to be juxtaposed with a European and pan-African perspective. Following the snowball effect, these exhibitions will develop from station to station.
Europe’s Colonial Fundaments
"I am convinced that the Third World will one day hold its own Nuremberg process and that we will all be exposed as corrupt beneficiaries of this crime against humanity." Wolfgang Schivelbusch
- Between 1500 and 1920, most of the planet and the majority of its population were, at least nominally, under European control.
- After World War I, half of the world’s surface was covered with colonies.
- 600 million people - that is two fifths of the world’s population - were governed by European colonial powers.
- Occupation of the countries: deposition of local government and the takeover of power, control over social life, the spreading of the Christian religions and last but not least, the exploitation of the workers and natural resources.
- Late colonization also brought considerable damage and is generally underestimated as a "violation of civilization".
Cherié Samba: Clearing up the Africa Museum Brüssel-Tervuren, founded as the "Kongo-Museum" by King Leopold II
For example Belgium: King Leopold II
Considering the Congo to be his possession, the Belgian king Leopold II started to rebuild Brussels extensively with plunder he had stolen from the colony. The process is reminiscent of the "Haussmanization" of Paris in the late 19th Century. Leopold’s "Europeanization" of the cities was applied to the Congolese capital and to Brussels. The colonial overhaul and imperial infiltration, which reached well past Patrice Lumumba’s post-colonial term of office, not only permitted town planning and architecture, but also changed the law system, education, medicine and language: it is still possible to travel across the continent speaking either French or English.
A meeting of the 1884/85 "African Conference" in the Reichschancellery Palace in Berlin, "drawn from nature by H. Lüders". The European delegates sit in front of the map of Africa, which has been divided up; Chancellor Bismarck stands at their head.
(Photo: Dierk Schmidt/Martin Kaltwasser)
European colonial politics seams so manifold that it makes sense to talk about modes of politics. Various colonial patterns emerge depending on national and cultural identity. In this case, it is important to consider national and cultural-specific tendencies while researching isolated phenomena. However, the European nations agreed on the subject of colonial exploitation. Moreover, it could be argued that the negotiations at the Berlin Congo Congress contributed to a large extent to unifying isolated European positions. Apart from everything else, the meeting was held to legalize oversea‘s possession. The union of European nations used the meeting, which stretched into 1885, to divide the African continent into exactely defined sectors. Although the African people were the subjects, they were absent during the negotiations. In the wake of the conference, European powers explored, mapped, annexed, exploited and devastated inner Africa. A hundred years ago, German colonial troops performed genocide on the peoples of Nama and Herero, regions that belong to Namibia now. This genocide was commanded from the Reich’s capital Berlin, which had become part of the European imperialistic crusade. The anti-colonial Africa Conference Berlin 2004 was initiated by African refugees and black Europeans to shed light on this illusive period of European history.
German soldiers, probably on the site of the customs house in Swakopmund, pack for transport to Berlin skulls of Herero who died or were murdered in the concentration camp. Circa 1905/06, from: Anonymous: "Meine Kriegserlebnisse in Deutsch-Südwest-Afrika. Von einem Offizier der Schutztruppe," Minden, 1907
World Wars & Third World
While going through colonial pictures of former German southwest Africa, one encounters the first descriptions of concentration camps, of forced labour with calculated mortality, of racist pornography and genocide. This so called war of extermination had been part of the Prussian military doctrine since 1870 and lasted from German colonial activities in southwest Africa to the atrocities committed by the German armed forces during World War II.
Anonymous: "Visit to Europe: Senegal, Guinea, Somalia, Tunis, Ivory Coast, Sudan, Anam" from: Wilhelm Reetz (ed. ) "Eine ganze Welt gegen uns. Eine Geschichte des Weltkrieges in Bildern", Berlin 1934
on the way to: From/To Europe looks at the construction of Europe from the point of view of colonial activity and imperialistic history. It proposes that the Berlin "Congo Conference" played a leading role in the establishment of a united Europe and juxtaposes this with liberation conferences (e.g. Asia-Africa Conference Bandung 1955, with Leopold Sédar Senghor, Tschou En-lai, FLN, Gamal Abdel Nasser / All-African Peoples’ Conference, Accra 1958, with Frantz Fanon, Patrice Lumumba, Malcolm X / Movement of the blockfree countries, Belgrade 1961 / Tri-continental Conference, Havanna 1966, with the foundation of the African, Asian and Latin American solidarity organization Ospaaal). World history from a southern perspective implies monitoring the self-organization and resistance of the global south and choosing paths of action and thoughts other than the Eurocentric way of thinking in Germany and the rest of the continent.
||Independence celebrations in Ghana (1957) and Algeria (1962)
In 1974, the African-American show and sports event Rumble in the Jungle promoting the Muhammad Ali v. George Foreman fight, brought James Brown and Miriam Makeba to Zaire (Congo). on the way to: From/To Europe continues to explore and present influential pan-African culture festivals including the most important African film festival Fespaco founded in 1970 in Ouagadougou/Burkina Faso, the Festival of Black Arts and Culture (Festac 76) in Lagos/Nigeria, the Photo-Biennial in Bamako/Mali, DAK‘ART Biennial in Dakar/Senegal or the newly founded Triennial of Luanda/Angola.
Edgar Cleijne (Netherlands/USA) over the Festac-Complex, 1976 in Lagos
Cities of the world
In 2001, the most popular name for a new-born boy in Brussels was "Mohamed". What does that mean for a metropolis that seeks to define itself as the European capital? And considering the fact that a school exclusively for immigrant children has already been opened in Berlin-Kreuzberg or that native Dutch citizens will soon be a minority in their hometowns, what exactly constitutes a European city?
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 28.12.2002
on the way to: From/To Europe investigates daily immigrant life in the northern cities with numerous reference networks to the global south, including, for example, Mike Davis’s analytic texts on Latin-Americanization.
Migrants in European countries have formed economic structures and networks that have already transcended the restrictivenational borders. Migration has played a decisive role in the formation of institutions such as the EEC and the EU, which attempt to regulate immigration. European migration policy can be determined by the examples provided by the negotiations for the inclusion of the ex-Yugoslavian countries and Turkey in the EU as well as the "neighbourly" politics pertaining to Libya or the Ukraine - all of which are global migration passages. The relationship is ambiguous: these countries both extend the Union’s border while questioning its legitimacy.
Brussels, for example
"Culture is the corporate identity of the European enterprise." Jacques Delors, former President of the European Parliament
In 1958, Brussels reserved half of the World Expo ground for its colony and colonial economic subsidiaries. Congolese people were flown in to play "negroe" in an "African village" in Brussels. Brussels, the city of EU, NATO and the European Intervention Troops, is home to many people from former French colonies (obvious for exemple in the African "Matonge" quarter or in the Maghreb "Schaabeek" quarter). It is - just like the German capital Berlin or the Hanseatic city Hamburg - an excellent starting point for the exploration of European colonial and post-colonial history. Switzerland (Basler Mission, global commercial relationships, money laundering), however, proves that post-colonialism is not necessarily reliant on having a colony. The Swiss city Zug is the fourth largest raw material trading centre worldwide after New York, London and Rotterdam. The Zurich City Parliament has recently been ordered to commission historians to clarify "the city‘s role in the transatlantic slave trade of the 18th and 19th Century […] suspicion has been aroused by a batch of research results linking Switzerland to the European commercial network of that time, thus implicating its involvement in the slave trade."
(NZZ, 15 September, 2005).
on the way to: From/To Europe examines and researches the relationship between Europe and Africa - from a cultural and a historical point of view. The project aims to shed light on the subjects of migration, exclusion, racism and asymmetrical exchange, in an attempt to correct the pervading misconceived image of the world in European cities. Besides, it tries to give a definition of "European cultures" beyond the popular Euocentric mode.
From/To Europe #1
on the way to: From/To Europe is the title of an outline for a project planned to be ongoing on Europe’s colonial foundations, tri-continental positions, and current post-colonial conditions in "cities of the world". It accompanies the exhibition series.
on the way to: From/To Europe: Jochen Becker/metroZones with Francesco Jodice, Valérie Jouve, Fahrettin Örenli and Dierk Schmidt; exhibition architecture: Jesko Fezer; project dialogue partners: Manuela Bojadzijev, Julien Enoka-Ayemba, Stephan Lanz
Francesco Jodice (Milano): The Morocco Affair (2004)
The Morocco Affair consists of a series of eighty-two portraits of houses in Morocco. The project took place in the suburbs of Oujda, thirty kilometres from Africa’s Mediterranean coast, near the Algerian border. Infrared technology was used to film at night from 17 to 23 March 2004, a week after the terrorist attacks on train stations in Madrid.
DVD, 22 min
Most of the houses are owned by MRE (Marocains Résidants à l’Etranger), most of whom are from Belgium, Germany, Holland, France and Spain. They are usually vacation homes, built by their owners with the help of income earned from working in various European countries to which they have emigrated. (Francesco Jodice)
Valérie Jouve (Paris): Grand Littoral (2003)
With: Raphaelle Paupert Borne, Salah, Michèle Berson, Jo Abad, Rabah and Islam, Marie Ducaté, Abderaman Diakité, Triscia Mendy, Flavie Pinatel, Marie Mendy, Jo Thirion, Westley and Lester Mendy, Alain and Emma Huet
DVD, 20 min
Grand Littoral is the name of a suburb of Marseille and a local shopping centre . . . The shopping centre covers a universe of contradictory nature at its entrances. I wanted to cross this territory. . . . The viewers never enter the shopping centre: they remain on the periphery, on the level of the no-man’s-land that surrounds it. . . . It is populated by the people who live around here, a place for strolling and roaming. . . . For me, the hill is a heterotopy, while the supermarket doesn’t fit in that concept. I had turned back into the supermarket and immersed myself in its function, I could not understand it as an element of the territory. . . . I am not studying the social side of the suburb but its territorial quality. . . . There is a dark tension in the film. I am always afraid that a plan will become too legible. I try to create images so that a maximum number of abstract elements in order to hide their primary meaning. (extract of a conversation between Valérie Jouve and Fabien Danesi)
Fahrettin Örenli (Amsterdam): Somebody in the European Community (2001)
In the European Community an individual knows scientifically that the moment a lit match falls down and touches the magic circle, it catches fire. In the circle the scorpion will sting itself. (Fahrettin Örenli)
DVD, 4 min
Dierk Schmidt (Berlin): Conférence de Berlin 1884/85 (2005)
At the Berlin Africa Conference in 1884/85, the thirteen European conference participants and the US granted the Belgian king Leopold II the Congo Basin as a paradigm example of a supposedly "modern" colony. There were no representatives of the continents in question present at this meeting. The European powers responded to the crisis of the transatlantic slave trade and the criticism of colonialism, which had existed since the revolution on Haiti, with the declaration of an (African) "free state", with the aim of the repatriation of slaves from the American continents and with the fight against the Arabian slave trade. One of the goals of this conference was to also legitimize and define colonialism anew. However, the real reason for the conference was the European resolution for preventative conflict avoidance among the states present. This was subject to the "Acte Général", its terms and conditions according to articles 34 and 35, the "obligation to disclose" and the "effective occupation". Under the influence of these regulations, the plan was that the signatory powers divide the continents up among themselves over the next fifteen years. The so called "Berlin borders" were established, which still apply to the majority of the national borders within the African continent today… This conference, to a large part a business conference, is not something that belongs to the distant past, indeed it can be considered to be a precursor of the renowned economic summit.
Excerpt from text accompanying "The division of the earth". Tableaux made up of the legal synopses at the Africa Conference in Berlin
From/To Europe #2
«Bourdieu in Algeria, Bourdieu in the Banlieue.»
A Commentary on "Pierre Bourdieu: In Algeria."
From/To Europe, part 2.
«Pierre Bourdieu. In Algeria. Testimonies of Uprooting.»
An exhibition by Camera Austria, Graz / Christine Frisinghelli and the Fondation Pierre Bourdieu, Genève / Franz Schultheis.
The sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, who toward the end of his life wrote of the «misery of the world» («Misère du monde», translated in abridged form as «The Weight of the World») from a French perspective, was stationed in Algeria as a young colonial solideraround the same time the psychiatrist Frantz Fanon, who was working in Algeria, was writing the anticolonial classic «Damnés de la terre» (translated as «The Wretched of the Earth»). Algeria had an enormous influence on Bourdieu’s research. The photographs he took there, recently rediscovered by Christine Frisinghelli and Franz Schultheis, trace the colonial power’s policy of expulsion: villages and local agriculture were destroyed and those who became unemployed as a result were driven into Algerian cities. The leap over the Mediterranean into France’s factories provided work for many North African immigrants. Many of them were housed in shanties on the edge of French cities.
The writer and sociologist Azouz Begag, who has been France’s minister for equal opportunities since May 2005, narrates in his autobiographical (children’s) book «Le Gone du Chaâba» (The kid from the village) the misery of a shanty town in a Arab-dominated Bidonville, near Lyons. His French classmates lived in permanent houses with running water, electricity, and television. In that respect, the large housing developments (banlieues) that were constructed around large cities were a blessing for the immigrants.
After the Second World War, France’s banlieues have accounted for three-quarters of urban growth. Just under nineteen million people live in them today. Now they are being demolished and the suggestion made they should be cleaned out with high-pressure water blasters, along with their inhabitants. The emergency legislation (état d‘urgence) dating from the Algerian war is no longer employed in the former colonies but in zones around the metropolises of immigrants in France.
«The truth is, certain French citizens are treated as second-class members of the national community, if not as lepers. They are sent to ghetto schools with inexperienced teachers; they are crammed into housing silos unfit for humans; and they are confronted with a locked and bolted labor market. In short, they live in a bleak, ravaged universe. Before our eyes France is disintegrating into economic communities, into a territorial and social apartheid. [. . .] Change will only occur in this country when the inhabitants of the suburbs are seen as French citizens with full rights, as part of the solution, not as an expression of the problem.» Tariq Ramadan (Geneva and Paris)
Commentary with the participation of: Jean Luc Godard Le Petit Soldat, Songs Voice of the Algerian Republic, Zeynep Çelik Algiers under French Rules, Gillo Pontecorvo La battaglia di Algieri, John Cromwell Algiers, Pier Paolo Pasolini La Rabbia, Alain Resnais Muriel, Mogniss Abdallah/Ken Fero Douce France, Carte de Sejour Douce France, Jacques Tati Playtime, Loïc Wacquant Red Belt, Black Belt, Pierre Carles La Sociologie est un sport de combat, Rabah Ameur-Zaïmeche Wesh Wesh - qu’est-ce qui se passe? The Clash Rock the Casbah, Rachid Taha Rock el Casbah, The Pop Group Savage Sea, Isaac Julien/Mark Nash Frantz Fanon: Black Skin, White Mask, Pierre Morel/Luc Besson Banlieue 13, Ariel Zeitoun/Julien Seri Yamakasi, Sido Mein Block, Bushido Feuersturm, Ulf Wuggenig/Diethelm Stoller Kunstraum Lüneburg, uam.
Cooperation: Remember Resistance Berlin / Madeleine Bernstorff, Julien Enoka-Ayemba, Brigitta Kuster, Sonja Hohenbild
Pierre Bourdieu. In Algeria. Testimonies of Uprooting. (pdf)
An exhibition by Camera Austria, Graz / Christine Frisinghelli and the Fondation Pierre Bourdieu, Genève / Franz Schultheis.
From/To Europe #3
Roaming Around: Digital Divide, Regional Codes, Copy/South & the Question of Access
Jochen Becker/metroZones with Agency (Kobe Matthys): quasi things • Balufu Bakupa-Kanyinda: afro@digital • Julien Enoka-Ayemba: ‘Nollywood’ • herbstCamp Graz: Global Controll • SMAQ architecture urbanism research (Sabine Müller, Andreas Quednau): Mobile Kinshasa & display architecture
The World Economic Forum, a private institute located in Geneva, has ranked Switzerland as the number one country in global competitiveness, highlighting its "healthy institutional environment, excellent infrastructure, efficient markets and high level of technological innovation". According to the Global Competitiveness Report, the decisive factors justifying this position are the "well-developed" infrastructure for scientific research as well as the "protection of intellectual property". In stark contrast, countries south of the Mediterranean occupy the bottom positions. "Africa will trail behind for some time to come", comments the director of the market radical Global Competitiveness Networks, Augusto Lopez-Claros. Bringing up the rear on the list reporting on 125 countries is Angola, whereas the Democratic Republic of Congo, for instance, is not even mentioned.
The global copyright regime capitalises so-called intellectual property, basing its claims on the worldwide acknowledged Berne Convention created in 1886. Continuously modified, its enforcement is overseen under the name of TRIPS+ Agreement (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property) by the World Trade Organisation (WTO) based in Geneva.
More and more regions are joining this copyright regime. They subject themselves to the rules so as to be considered part of the global economy, even though this means first and foremost that the rights of the Northern ‘knowledge societies’ are to be enforced in the South as well. Meanwhile, this is why the copyleft movements, organised around open source and creative commons, are reflecting critically on what up until now have been Eurocentric oriented problems. The internationally elaborated Copy/South Dossier (www.copysouth.org) documents this shifting focus.
The networked world is fragmented at the same time - also beyond the ‘digital divide’, as the social, economic, technological and geographic division in the access to data traffic is called. The divides run through the industrial states, but above all between North and South. Even the regional code for DVDs separates Europe from Africa. It has been said often enough: apparently there are more telephone connections in Manhattan than in sub-Saharan Africa.
But who stands there at the divide and distinguishes between the digital ‘haves’ and ‘have-nots’? In the opening discussion to the book Vernetzt gespalten, a rewarding read", Rupert Scheule writes: "is our digital divide discourse also not a part of the captivating option which it is criticising?" One can counter the image of a schismatic split, which plays into the hands of the widespread Afro pessimism, with others: for instance, the rate of connections in the global South to the web (mobile phones, internet cafes, wireless LAN, WiMAX) is meanwhile increasing steeply in comparison to earthbound infrastructures (telephone, water, electricity, roads, railways).
Soon million of so-called 100 Dollar Laptops with Open Source Software are to be distributed free of charge to kids and youths in the Global South. Telephoning with a mobile handset makes everyday life easier in Kinshasa, for instance when finding work, and at the same time is an informal source of income for phone card vendors. Even the so-called Nigeria Scam, the million-fold fraudulent spinning of business connections via e-mail, is only possible thanks to an increasingly closely meshed network structure. One could also point out the ‘Nollywood’ boom: a purely digital video movie market in West Africa. A trendsetter, the films are shot with digital cameras and distributed in huge numbers on DVD or VCD as well as shown in beamer cinemas. In the meantime, ‘Nollywood’ has emerged as the world’s third largest film industry after ‘Hollywood’ and ‘Bollywood’. ‘Nollywood’ films are sold at the same markets as the so-called pirate copies of music, film or software, circumventing the global copyright regime. Access to knowledge and culture, which are increasingly assuming digital form, is existential, too.
Rock el Casbah
Bourdieu, Algier, Bern, Banlieue
Symposium 22./ 23. April 2006
Concept: Jochen Becker/metroZones with Manuela Bojadzijev, Sönke Gau, and Katharina Schlieben. Co-produced with Fondation Pierre Bourdieu, Geneve.
The sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, who toward the end of his life wrote of the "misery of the world" (Misère du monde, abridged English trans. as The Weight of the World) from a French perspective, was stationed in Algeria as a young colonial solider. Algeria had an enormous influence on Bourdieu’s research. The photographs he took there, recently rediscovered by Christine Frisinghelli and Franz Schultheiss, trace the colonial power’s policy of expulsion on an everyday level: villages and local agriculture were destroyed and those who became unemployed as a result were driven into Algerian cities.
For years Switzerland was the place to which the Algerian resistance retreated. Under the umbrella of the World Cup in soccer in Bern, the so-called WM-Kolloquium met secretly in the summer of 1954. Nine leaders of the Algerian revolution traveled to Bern from Cairo, Paris, and Algiers. The decision was made to launch the armed struggle against the colonial powers that would begin in November of that year and ended in 1962 with the liberation of Algeria. An associated office in Lausanne supported the struggles.
Unemployment, the colonial war, and later the civil wars drove many Algerians across the Mediterranean into factories and a new live in France. Many of them lived at first in shanty towns, so-called Bidonvilles, on the edge of French cities. After the Second World War, France’s banlieues accounted for three-quarters of urban growth. The buildings were often built by immigrant construction works who would soon move into the them. Almost nineteen million people live in them today. Now these concrete-slab buildings are being demolished and the suggestion made they should be cleaned out with high-pressure water blasters, along with their inhabitants, as the French minister of the interior, Nicolas Sarkozy, suggested. The statement fueled a riot that lasted a good three weeks last November. The response of the state was to appeal to emergency legislation (état d‘urgence) dating from the Algerian war, no longer in the former colonies but rather in zones around the metropolises of immigrants in France. A postcolonial condition has long since arrived in Europe.
Saturday, 22. April 2006
14.00. Introduction: Jochen Becker (metroZones, Berlin) & Manuela Bojadzijev (Transit Migration, Frankfurt am Main) & Katharina Schlieben & Sönke Gau (Shedhalle Zürich)
14.30: Mogniss Abdallah (journalist, Mouvement de l’Immigration et des Banlieues, Paris): "Immigration from the Maghreb and Resistance until 1990"
15.15: Dietmar Loch (sociologist, University of Grenoble): "Banlieue and Protest in the 1990s"
16.00: Bernard Schmid (journalist, Paris): "Riots in the Banlieues, Strikes in the Cities"
17.00: Manuela Bojadzijev (Transit Migration, University of Frankfurt/M): "European Dimensions of Migration"
Commentary and discussion
18.00 - 20.00: Dinner
20.00- 22.00: Film program with commentary: Remember Resistance (Jochen Becker, Julien Enoka-Ayemba, Brigitta Kuster, Sonja Hohenbild/Berlin)
Sunday, 23. April 2006
12.00: Excursion to the Schwamendingen suburb of Zurich together wth Daniel
Weiss und Marion von Osten (Transit Migration, ith Zürich)
15.00: Introduction: Jochen Becker and Manuela Bojadzijev
15.30: Charles-Herni Favrod (writer and photo curator, St. Prex): "The ‘World Cup Colloquium’ in Bern and the Algerian War of Liberation"
16.15: Bernard Schmid: "Algeria between Liberation and Islamism"
17.00: Franz Schultheiss (sociologist, Foundation Pierre Bourdieu, Geneva): "Bourdieu and Postcolonial Algeria"
18.00 - 19.30: Dinner
19.30: Film: Mogniss Abdallah and Ken Fero Douce France